Applied Transfusion and Transplantation Science
30 credit level 3 module
About this course
Page last updated 26 September 2019
On successful completion of this module you will be able to fulfil the following learning outcomes:
- Demonstrate an understanding of the integrated nature of diagnostic assessments conducted on patients and/or patient samples.
Blood and Tissue Sciences
- Review the mechanisms responsible for disease and disorders in the human body.
- Demonstrate knowledge of the pathophysiology, investigation and diagnosis of selected diseases.
- Demonstrate an understanding and experience of the application of clinical biochemistry methods used to investigate acute disorders of major organ function.
- Demonstrate an understanding and experience of safe handling and preparation of human blood and tissues for microbiology, viability and/or compatibility testing.
- Demonstrate an understanding and experience of the application of molecular, immunological and serological methods used to assess transfusion and transplantation viability and/or compatibility in common medical disorders.
- Develop the ability to integrate the specialist areas of biomedical science into the context of a coherent case study approach.
Immunology and Disease
- Demonstrate basic knowledge of the cellular and molecular aspects of immunology.
- Distinguish the role of humoral and cellular mechanisms in response to a wide spectrum of pathogens and antigens.
- Recognise how antibodies and effector cells cause tissue damage in selected immune mediated diseases.
- Demonstrate a basic understanding of the role of the immune system in blood transfusion and transplantation.
- Associate particular symptoms with selected diseases of the immune system.
- Evaluate important laboratory immunological techniques and their theoretical bases.
- Analyse and interpret laboratory data.
Careers / Further study
This module can contribute towards:
- FdSc Healthcare Science
- BSc (Hons) Healthcare Science (Transfusion and Transplantation Sciences).
Blood and Tissue Sciences
Students will carry out case studies selected to illustrate the multifactorial and integrated nature of disease and its laboratory investigation. Indicative content includes:
Haematology and Transfusion Science: Haematology of normal and disease states, haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemias, anaemias, leukaemias and thrombosis. Laboratory investigation of disease states. The role of the laboratory in monitoring of therapy. Immunohaematology; including identification of blood group antigens, methods for antibody detection and compatibility testing and safety aspects of blood transfusion.
Homeostasis and malignant disease: Central importance of homeostasis, mechanisms of control and the consequences of failure. Concepts of disease and normality, reference ranges, mechanisms of cancer development at a
cellular level, haematological disorders and diagnosis and treatment.
Cellular Pathology: Microscopic analysis of cells and tissues. Preparative processes for microscopical analysis of tissues and cells. Cell and tissue stabilisation. Histological and cytological features of the disease state. Clinical
laboratory applications of cellular pathology; its role in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction.
Clinical Biochemistry: Diagnosis, screening and monitoring of disease through qualitative and quantitative evaluation. Diagnosis of Liver, Cardiac diseases and endocrine disorders. Drug toxicity and drug monitoring.
Immunology and Disease
- The host and environment, antigens, foreignness, innate and acquired immunity.
- Innate immune mechanisms, the problem of immune recognition, immunogens and antigens.
- Recognition of self and tolerance.
- B cells, epitopes, and antibodies.
- Recognition of antigens by T cells, the major histocompatibility complex, and antigen presentation.
- Cell-mediated immune reactions.
- Basic structure of antibodies, antibody classes, isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes, monoclonal antibodies.
- Biological functions of antibodies and complement.
- Antigen-antibody interactions; detection and measurement of antibodies.
- Different types of immune cells and the lymphatic system.
- The humoral response, T-B cell interactions, cytokines and memory cells.
- Antibody-mediated diseases: hypersensitivity reactions, red cell antigens and transfusion reactions, transplantation.
- Humoral and cell responses to bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
- Prophylaxis and vaccines.
- Rogue T lymphocytes in autoimmunity such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes.
- The immunology of cancer and immunodeficiency diseases, including AIDS.
- Immunoassay, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.
Learning and Teaching
You are expected to spend 72 hours on scheduled learning and 228 hours on independent learning. Theoretical material within the module will be presented to you in the form of regular lectures throughout each of the semesters in the academic year. During those times of work based learning, these lectures will be delivered online and involve a number of technological enhancements. The learning of lecture content will be reinforced through time spent in independent learning by the directed reading of recommended texts and through the use of technology enhanced learning resources that will be provided online.
This online learning and engagement will be delivered through several avenues:
- Synchronous online tutorials in protected learning time where the student will contribute/attend an online activity appropriate to the content at the time at which the academic will be present online to facilitate and lead this scheduled/timetabled session. This tutorial will be themed/planned.
- Asynchronous discussions in the student's own time (or during protected time where permitted and appropriate) where they will engage/collaborate with other students on the course or in specified groups, and in which the academic is permitted to moderate where necessary, but is not expected to contribute.
- Synchronous surgery sessions timetabled for a specific time in which the academic will be available online to answer live questions via discussion boards/blogs/collaborate or to respond to questions posted/asked prior to the session.
- Interactive, online formative quizzes made available either following a particular package of knowledge exchange/learning, or in specified sessions/time periods.
- Lectures delivered online through a combination of one or more of the following: visual/audio/interactivity/personal formative assessment.
Practical classes will include simulated case-study based investigations which will allow you to develop your analytical, interpretive and data handling skills.
The remainder of the independent learning time allocated to the module should be spent preparing written assessments for submission, and undertaking revision for the controlled component.
Scheduled learning includes lectures, seminars, tutorials, project supervision, demonstration, practical classes and workshops; fieldwork; external visits; work based learning; supervised time in studio/workshop.
Independent learning includes hours engaged with essential reading, case study preparation, assignment preparation and completion etc. These sessions constitute an average time per level as indicated in the table below. Scheduled sessions may vary slightly depending on the module choices you make.
The Assessment Strategy has been designed to support and enhance the development of both subject-based and more general skills, whilst ensuring that the modules learning outcomes are attained, as described below.
The written exam will provide you with an opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge on a broad range of topics through a series of short essay questions.
Continuous assessment will be provided by the use of three x 30 minute online activities embedded in the module. These activities will require UWE login. The module leader will have full access to up-to-date data to monitor progress and marks obtained by you.
Feedback at this level will also be provided online and will be by review of the tests after they have been completed and will include the correct answers (after the relevant assessment period has concluded).
The design of these online assessed activities will be varied, for example:
- Timed essay questions
- Label the structure
- Prioritisation structure
- Scenario based questions
The first element will be an independent case study of direct relevance to your employment, which is to be prepared and presented for assessment as an oral presentation during a block attendance at university.
The second element is a contextual review of a recent article related to diagnostic advance(s) in a technique(s) of relevance to your employment, the content of which will be negotiated with the appropriate academic tutor.
Formative feedback is available to you throughout the module through group discussions, and in workshops.
You are provided with formative feed-forward for their exam through a revision and exam preparation session prior to the exam and through the extensive support materials supplied through Blackboard.
All work is marked in line with the Department's Generic Assessment Criteria and conforms to university policies for the setting, collection, marking and return of our work. Where an individual piece of work has specific assessment criteria, this is supplied to you when the work is set.